Saturday, April 19, 2008


UPDATE: Two more papers should be added to the list lower down this post. There's an introduction to each, and an associated, peer-reviewed paper as a pdf. Both are by Douglas Keenan.

  1. Grape harvest dates are poor indicators of summer warmth Introduction - Paper (pdf)
  2. The fraud allegation against some climatic research of Wei-Chyung Wang Introduction - Paper (pdf)


Environmentalist Mark Seal started up a forum where global warming could be debated, but he had some initial concerns:
I was initially worried as to where I would find people who didn’t believe in global warming. I had planned to create a furious debate, but in my experience global warming was such a universally accepted issue that I expected to have to dredge the slums of the internet in order to find a couple of deniers who could keep the argument thriving.
Happily, things turned out all right:
I was swamped by climate skeptics who did a good job of frightening off the few brave Greens who slogged out the debate with. Whilst there was a lot of rubbish written, the truth was that they didn’t so much frighten the Greens away - they comprehensively demolished them with a more in depth understanding of the science, cleverly thought out arguments, and some very smart answers. If you want to learn about the physics of convection currents, gas chromatography, or any number of climate science topics then read some of the early debates on TalkClimateChange. I didn’t believe a word of it, but I had to admit that these guys were good.

In the following months the situation hardly changed. As the forum continued to grow, as the blog began to catch traffic, and as I continued to try and recruit green members I continued to be disappointed with the debate. In short, and I am sorry to say it, anti-greens (Reds, as we call them) appear to be more willing to comment, more structured, more able to quote peer reviewed research, more apparently rational and apparently wider read and better informed.
In the comments, someone expresses incredulity that there are any peer reviewed papers that don't support alarmism. As a public service, here are a few links. They come from the Global Warming Clearing House, a newish site that tries to post pro- anti- and neutral links every day. The site author summed up the conclusions this balanced approach had led him to in his first month, as follows (heavily edited down to just some of the headings):
The Global Temperature is actually going down.

Measuring data is difficult and prone to errors. Measuring data over a long time is even more so.

CO2 reacts logarithmically so that the more that enters the atmosphere the less effect it has.

The Ocean temperatures are not rising and may be dropping.

Ice coverage is actually above the mean.
Here are the links to peer reviewed papers, originally from Pete's Place Popular Technology.
1,500-Year Climate Cycle:

A 150,000-year climatic record from Antarctic ice(Nature 316, 591 - 596, 15 August 1985)- C. Lorius, C. Ritz, J. Jouzel, L. Merlivat, N. I. Barkov
A Pervasive Millennial-Scale Cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and Glacial Climates(Science, Vol. 278. no. 5341, pp. 1257 - 1266, 14 November 1997)- Gerard Bond, William Showers, Maziet Cheseby, Rusty Lotti, Peter Almasi, Peter deMenocal, Paul Priore, Heidi Cullen, Irka Hajdas, Georges Bonani
A Variable Sun Paces Millennial Climate(Science, Vol. 294. no. 5546, pp. 1431 - 1433, 16 November 2001)- Richard A. Kerr
Cyclic Variation and Solar Forcing of Holocene Climate in the Alaskan Subarctic(Science, Vol. 301. no. 5641, pp. 1890 - 1893, 26 September 2003)- Feng Sheng Hu, Darrell Kaufman, Sumiko Yoneji, David Nelson, Aldo Shemesh, Yongsong Huang, Jian Tian, Gerard Bond, Benjamin Clegg, Thomas Brown
Decadal to millennial cyclicity in varves and turbidites from the Arabian Sea: hypothesis of tidal origin(Global and Planetary Change, Volume 34, Issues 3-4, Pages 313-325, November 2002)- W. H. Bergera, U. von Rad
Late Holocene approximately 1500 yr climatic periodicities and their implications(Geology, v. 26; no. 5; p. 471-473, May 1998)- Ian D. Campbell, Celina Campbell, Michael J. Apps, Nathaniel W. Rutter, Andrew B. G. Bush
Possible solar origin of the 1,470-year glacial climate cycle demonstrated in a coupled model(Nature 438, 208-211, 10 November 2005)- Holger Braun, Marcus Christl, Stefan Rahmstorf, Andrey Ganopolski, Augusto Mangini, Claudia Kubatzki, Kurt Roth, Bernd Kromet
The 1,800-year oceanic tidal cycle: A possible cause of rapid climate change(PNAS, vol. 97, no. 8, 3814-3819, April 11, 2000)- Charles D. Keeling, Timothy P. Whorf
The origin of the 1500-year climate cycles in Holocene North-Atlantic records(Climate of the Past Discussions, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp.679-692, 2007)- M. Debret, V. Bout-Roumazeilles, F. Grousset, M. Desmet, J. F. McManus, N. Massei, D. Sebag, J.-R. Petit, Y. Copard, A. Trentesaux
Timing of abrupt climate change: A precise clock(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, No. 10, 2003)- Stefan Rahmstorf
Timing of Millennial-Scale Climate Change in Antarctica and Greenland During the Last Glacial Period(Science, Volume 291, Issue 5501, pp. 109-112, 2001)- Thomas Blunier, Edward J. Brook
Widespread evidence of 1500 yr climate variability in North America during the past 14 000 yr(Geology, v. 30, no. 5, p. 455-458, May 2002)- André E. Viau, Konrad Gajewski, Philippe Fines, David E. Atkinson, Michael C. Sawada

An Inconvenient Truth:
An Inconvenient Truth : a focus on its portrayal of the hydrologic cycle(GeoJournal, Volume 70, Number 1, September, 2007)- David R. Legates
An Inconvenient Truth : blurring the lines between science and science fiction(GeoJournal, Volume 70, Number 1, September 2007)- Roy W. Spencer

Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide(Energy & Environment, Volume 10, Number 5, pp. 439-468, 1 September 1999)- Arthur B. Robinson, Noah E. Robinson, Willie Soon
Global warming(Progress in Physical Geography, 27, 448-455, 2003)- W. Soon, S. L. Baliunas
Human Contribution to Climate Change Remains Questionable(American Geophysical Society, Vol 80, page 183-187, April 20, 1999)- S. Fred Singer
Industrial CO2 emissions as a proxy for anthropogenic influence on lower tropospheric temperature trends(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 31, L05204, 2004)- A. T. J. de Laat, A. N. Maurellis
Implications of the Secondary Role of Carbon Dioxide and Methane Forcing in Climate Change: Past, Present, and Future(Physical Geography, Volume 28, Number 2, pp. 97-125(29), March 2007)- Soon, Willie
Methodology and Results of Calculating Central California Surface Temperature Trends: Evidence of Human-Induced Climate Change?(Journal of Climate, Volume: 19 Issue: 4, February 2006)- Christy, J.R., W.B. Norris, K. Redmond, K. Gallo
Modeling climatic effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions: unknowns and uncertainties(Climate Research, Vol. 18: 259–275, 2001)- Willie Soon, Sallie Baliunas, Sherwood B. Idso, Kirill Ya. Kondratyev, Eric S. Posmentier
Modeling climatic effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions: unknowns and uncertainties. Reply to Risbey (2002)(Climate Research, Vol. 22: 187–188, 2002)- Willie Soon, Sallie Baliunas, Sherwood B. Idso, Kirill Ya. Kondratyev, Eric S. Posmentier
Modeling climatic effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions: unknowns and uncertainties. Reply to Karoly et al.(Climate Research, Vol. 24: 93–94, 2003)- Willie Soon, Sallie Baliunas, Sherwood B. Idso, Kirill Ya. Kondratyev, Eric S. Posmentier
On global forces of nature driving the Earth's climate. Are humans involved?(Environmental Geology, Volume 50, Number 6, August, 2006)- L. F. Khilyuk and G. V. Chilingar
Quantitative implications of the secondary role of carbon dioxide climate forcing in the past glacial-interglacial cycles for the likely future climatic impacts of anthropogenic greenhouse-gas forcings(arXiv:0707.1276, 07/2007)- Soon, Willie
The continuing search for an anthropogenic climate change signal: Limitations of correlation-based approaches(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 24, No. 18, Pages 2319–2322, 1997)- David R. Legates, Robert E. Davis

A doubling in snow accumulation in the western Antarctic Peninsula since 1850(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 35, L01706, 2008)- Elizabeth R. Thomas, Gareth J. Marshall, Joseph R. McConnell
First survey of Antarctic sub–ice shelf sediments reveals mid-Holocene ice shelf retreat(Geology, v. 29; no. 9; p. 787-790, September 2001)- Carol J. Pudsey, Jeffrey Evans
Orbitally induced oscillations in the East Antarctic ice sheet at the Oligocene/Miocene boundary(Nature 413, 719-723, October 2001)- Naish TR, Woolfe KJ, Barrett PJ, Wilson GS, Atkins C, Bohaty SM, Bücker CJ, Claps M, Davey FJ, Dunbar GB, Dunn AG, Fielding CR, Florindo F, Hannah MJ, Harwood DM, Henrys SA, Krissek LA, Lavelle M, van Der Meer J, McIntosh WC, Niessen F, Passchier S, Powell RD, Roberts AP, Sagnotti L, Scherer RP, Strong CP, Talarico F, Verosub KL, Villa G, Watkins DK, Webb PN, Wonik T
Past and Future Grounding-Line Retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet(Science, Vol. 286. no. 5438, pp. 280 - 283, October 1999)- H. Conway, B. L. Hall, G. H. Denton, A. M. Gades, E. D. Waddington
Snowfall-Driven Growth in East Antarctic Ice Sheet Mitigates Recent Sea-Level Rise(Science, Vol. 308. no. 5730, pp. 1898 - 1901, 24 June 2005)- Curt H. Davis, Yonghong Li, Joseph R. McConnell, Markus M. Frey, Edward Hanna

Actual and insolation-weighted Northern Hemisphere snow cover and sea-ice between 1973–2002(Climate Dynamics, Volume 22, Issue 6-7, pp. 591-595, 2004)- R. Pielke, G. Liston, W. Chapman, D. Robinson
Scary Arctic Ice Loss? Blame the Wind(Science, Vol. 307. no. 5707, p. 203, 14 January 2005)- Richard A. Kerr
Sea-ice decline due to more than warming alone(Nature 450, 27, 1 November 2007)- Julia Slingo, Rowan SuttonCO2 lags Temperature changes:
180 years of atmospheric CO2 gas analysis by chemical methods(Energy & Environment, Volume 18, Number 2, pp. 259-282(24), March 2007)- Beck, Ernst-Georg
Ice core records of atmospheric CO2 around the last three glacial terminations(Science, Vol. 283. no. 5408, pp. 1712 - 1714, 12 March 1999)- Hubertus Fischer, Martin Wahlen, Jesse Smith, Derek Mastroianni, Bruce Deck

High-resolution records from Antarctic ice cores show that carbon dioxide concentrations increased by 80 to 100 parts per million by volume 600 ± 400 years after the warming of the last three deglaciations.

Southern Hemisphere and Deep-Sea Warming Led Deglacial Atmospheric CO2 Rise and Tropical Warming(Science, September 27, 2007)- Lowell Stott, Axel Timmermann, Robert Thunell
The phase relations among atmospheric CO2 content, temperature and global ice volume over the past 420 ka(Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 583-589, February 2001)- Manfred Mudelsee
Timing of Atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic Temperature Changes Across Termination III(Science 14, Vol. 299. no. 5613, March 2003)- Nicolas Caillon, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Jean Jouzel, Jean-Marc Barnola, Jiancheng Kang, Volodya Y. Lipenkov

The sequence of events during Termination III suggests that the CO2 increase lagged Antarctic deglacial warming by 800 ± 200 years and preceded the Northern Hemisphere deglaciation.

Computer Climate Models:
A comparison of tropical temperature trends with model predictions(International Journal of Climatology, 5 Dec 2007)- David H. Douglass, John R. Christy, Benjamin D. Pearson, S. Fred Singer
Altitude dependence of atmospheric temperature trends: Climate models versus observation(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 31, L13208, 2004)- David H. Douglass, Benjamin D. Pearson, S. Fred Singer
Effects of bias in solar radiative transfer codes on global climate model simulations(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, L20717, 2005)- Albert Arking
Global Climate Models Violate Scaling of the Observed Atmospheric Variability(Physical Review Letters, Vol. 89, No. 2, July 8, 2002)- R. B. Govindan, Dmitry Vyushin, Armin Bunde, Stephen Brenner, Shlomo Havlin, Hans-Joachim Schellnhuber
Quantifying the influence of anthropogenic surface processes and inhomogeneities on gridded global climate data(Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, D24S09, 2007)- Ross R. McKitrick, Patrick J. Michaels
Seductive Simulations? Uncertainty Distribution Around Climate Models(Social Studies of Science, Vol. 35, No. 6, 895-922, 2005)- Myanna Lahsen

Greenhouse Theory:
Are observed changes in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere really dangerous?(Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology,v. 50, no. 2, p. 297-327, June 2002)- C. R. de Freitas
Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations over the Last Glacial Termination(Science, Vol. 291. no. 5501, 5 January 2001)- Eric Monnin, Andreas Indermühle, André Dällenbach, Jacqueline Flückiger, Bernhard Stauffer, Thomas F. Stocker, Dominique Raynaud, Jean-Marc Barnola
Atmospheric CO2 fluctuations during the last millennium reconstructed by stomatal frequency analysis of Tsuga heterophylla needles(Geology, v. 33; no. 1; p. 33-36, January 2005)- Lenny Kouwenberg, Rike Wagner, Wolfram Kürschner, Henk Visscher
Can increasing carbon dioxide cause climate change?(Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 94, pp. 8335-8342, August 1997)- Richard S. Lindzen
Cloud and radiation budget changes associated with tropical intraseasonal oscillations(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, L15707, 2007)- Roy W. Spencer, William D. Braswell, John R. Christy, Justin Hnilo
CO2-induced global warming: a skeptic’s view of potential climate change(Climate Research, Vol. 10: 69–82, 1998)- Sherwood B. Idso
Does the Earth Have an Adaptive Infrared Iris?(Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Volume 82, Issue 3, pp. 417–432, March 2001)- Richard S. Lindzen, Ming-Dah Chou, and Arthur Y. Hou
Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within The Frame Of Physics(Physics, arXiv:0707.1161)- Gerhard Gerlich, Ralf D. Tscheuschner

A. there are no common physical laws between the warming phenomenon in glass houses and the fictitious atmospheric greenhouse effects, B. there are no calculations to determine an average surface temperature of a planet, C. the frequently mentioned difference of 33 degrees Celsius is a meaningless number calculated wrongly, D. the formulas of cavity radiation are used inappropriately, E. the assumption of a radiative balance is unphysical, F. thermal conductivity and friction must not be set to zero, the atmospheric greenhouse conjecture is falsified.

Heat capacity, time constant, and sensitivity of Earth's climate system(Accepted for publication in Journal of Geophysical Research)- Stephen E. Schwartz
Phanerozoic Climatic Zones and Paleogeography with a Consideration of Atmospheric CO2 Levels(Paleontological Journal, 2: 3-11, 2003)- A. J. Boucot, Chen Xu, C. R. Scotese
The "Greenhouse Effect" as a Function of Atmospheric Mass(Energy & Environment, Volume 14, Numbers 2-3, pp. 351-356, 1 May 2003)- H. Jelbring

Global Warming and the Greenland Ice Sheet(Climatic Change, Volume 63, Numbers 1-2, pp. 201-221(21), March 2004)- Petr Chylek, Jason E. Box, Glen Lesins
Greenland warming of 1920–1930 and 1995–2005(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, 2006)- Petr Chylek, M. K. Dubey, G. Lesins
Rapid Changes in Ice Discharge from Greenland Outlet Glaciers(Science, Vol. 315. no. 5818, pp. 1559 - 1561, 16 March 2007)- Ian M. Howat, Ian Joughin, Ted A. Scambos
Recent cooling in coastal southern Greenland and relation with the North Atlantic Oscillation(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2003)- Edward Hanna, John Cappelen
Recent Ice-Sheet Growth in the Interior of Greenland(Science 11, Vol. 310. no. 5750, pp. 1013 - 1016, November 2005)- Ola M. Johannessen, Kirill Khvorostovsky, Martin W. Miles, Leonid P. Bobylev

Hockey Stick:
climatic and environmental changes of the past 1000 years(Climate Research, Vol. 23, 89–110, January 2003)- Willie Soon, Sallie Baliunas
Corrections to the Mann et al (1998) Proxy Data Base and Northern Hemisphere Average Temperature Series(Energy & Environment, Volume 14, Number 6, pp. 751-771, November 2003)- Stephen McIntyre, Ross McKitrick
The M&M Critique of the MBH98 Northern Hemisphere Climate Index: Update and Implications(Energy & Environment, Volume 16, Number 1, pp. 69-100, January 2005)- Stephen McIntyre, Ross McKitrick
Hockey sticks, principal components, and spurious significance(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, February 2005)- Stephen McIntyre, Ross McKitrick

Their method, when tested on persistent red noise, nearly always produces a hockey stick shape...

- Reply to comment by Huybers on "Hockey sticks, principal components, and spurious significance"(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, October 2005)- Stephen McIntyre, Ross McKitrick-
Reply to comment by von Storch and Zorita on "Hockey sticks, principal components, and spurious significance"(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, October 2005)- Stephen McIntyre, Ross McKitrick
Highly variable Northern Hemisphere temperatures reconstructed from low- and high-resolution proxy data(Nature 433, 613-617, February 2005)- Anders Moberg, Dmitry M. Sonechkin, Karin Holmgren, Nina M. Datsenko and Wibjörn Karlén
Comment on "The Spatial Extent of 20th-Century Warmth in the Context of the Past 1200 Years"(Science, Vol. 316. no. 5833, p. 1844, June 2007)- Gerd Bürger
A 2000-year global temperature reconstruction based on non-treering proxies(Energy & Environment, Volume 18, Numbers 7-8, pp. 1049-1058, December 2007)- C. Loehle

Can We Detect Trends in Extreme Tropical Cyclones?(Science, Vol. 313. no. 5786, pp. 452 - 454, 28 July 2006)- Christopher W. Landsea, Bruce A. Harper, Karl Hoarau, John A. Knaff
Causes of the Unusually Destructive 2004 Atlantic Basin Hurricane Season(Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Volume 87, Issue 10, October 2006)- Philip J. Klotzbach, William M. Gray
Comments on "Impacts of CO2-Induced Warming on Simulated Hurricane Intensity and Precipitation: Sensitivity to the Choice of Climate Model and Convective Scheme"(Journal of Climate, Volume 18, Issue 23, December 2005)- Patrick J. Michaels, Paul C. Knappenberger, Christopher Landsea
Counting Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Back to 1900(EOS, Transactions American Geophysical Union, Vol. 88, No. 18, Page 197, 2007)- Christopher W. Landsea
Hurricanes and Global Warming(Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Volume 86, Issue 11, November 2005)- R. A. Pielke Jr., C. Landsea, M. Mayfield, J. Laver, and R. Pasch
Meteorology: Are there trends in hurricane destruction?(Nature 438, E11, 22 December 2005) - Roger A. Pielke, Jr
Sea-surface temperatures and tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 22, No. 33, L09708, 2006)- Patrick J. Michaels, Paul C. Knappenberger, Robert E. Davis
Tropical Cyclones and Global Climate Change: A Post-IPCC Assessment(Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Volume 79, Issue 1, January 1998)- A. Henderson-Sellers, H. Zhang, G. Berz, K. Emanuel, W. Gray, C. Landsea, G. Holland, J. Lighthill, S.-L. Shieh, P. Webster, K. McGuffie

Time to ditch Kyoto(Nature 449, 973-975, 25 October 2007)- Gwyn Prins, Steve Rayner

Medieval Warming Period -Little Ice Age:
A 700 year record of Southern Hemisphere extratropical climate variability(Annals of Glaciology, vol. 39, p.127-132, 2004)- P.A Mayewski, K. Maasch, J.W.C White, E.J. Steig, E. Meyerson, I. Goodwin, V.I. Morgan, T. van Ommen, M.A.J. Curran, J. Sourney, K. Kreutz
Coherent High- and Low-Latitude Climate Variability During the Holocene Warm Period(Science, Vol. 288. no. 5474, pp. 2198 - 2202, 23 June 2000)- Peter deMenocal, Joseph Ortiz, Tom Guilderson, Michael Sarnthein
Evidence for a 'Medieval Warm Period' in a 1,100 year tree-ring reconstruction of past austral summer temperatures in New Zealand(Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 29, no. 14, pp. 12-1 to 12-4. 15 July 2002)- E. R. Cook, J. G. Palmer, R. D'Arrigo
Evidence for the existence of the medieval warm period in China(Climatic Change, Volume 26, Numbers 2-3, March, 1994)- De'Er Zhang
Glacial geological evidence for the medieval warm period(Climatic Change, Volume 26, Numbers 2-3, March, 1994)- Jean M. Grove, Roy Switsur
Late Holocene surface ocean conditions of the Norwegian Sea (Vøring Plateau)(Paleooceanography, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1044, 2003)- Carin Andersson, Bjørg Risebrobakken, Eystein Jansen, Svein Olaf Dahl
Low-Frequency Signals in Long Tree-Ring Chronologies for Reconstructing Past Temperature Variability(Science, Vol. 295. no. 5563, pp. 2250 - 2253, 22 March 2002)- Jan Esper, Edward R. Cook, Fritz H. Schweingruber
Medieval climate warming and aridity as indicated by multiproxy evidence from the Kola Peninsula, Russia(Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 209, Issues 1-4, Pages 113-125, 6 July 2004)- K. V. Kremenetski, T. Boettger, G. M. MacDonald, T. Vaschalova, L. Sulerzhitsky, A. Hiller
Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age and 20th century temperature variability from Chesapeake Bay(Global and Planetary Change, Volume 36, Issues 1-2, March 2003, Pages 17-29)- T. M. Cronin, G. S. Dwyer, T. Kamiya, S. Schwede, D. A. Willard
Reconstructing Climatic and Environmental Changes of the Past 1000 Years: A Reappraisal(Energy and Environment, Vol. 14, Issues 2 & 3, April 11, 2003)- Willie Soon, Sallie Baliunas, Sherwood B. Idso, Craig Idso, David R. Legates

Many records reveal that the 20th century is likely not the warmest nor a uniquely extreme climatic period of the last millennium.

The Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period in the Sargasso Sea(Science, Vol. 274. no. 5292, pp. 1503 - 1508, 29 November 1996)- Lloyd D. Keigwin
The Little Ice Age and Medieval Warming in South Africa(South African Journal of Science 96: 121-126, 2000)- P. D. Tyson, W. Karlén, K. Holmgren and G. A. Heiss
The 'Mediaeval Warm Period' drought recorded in Lake Huguangyan, tropical South China(Holocene, Vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 511-516, 2002)- Guoqiang Chu, Jiaqi Liu, Qing Sun, Houyuan Lu, Zhaoyan Gu, Wenyuan Wang, Tungsheng Liu
The Medieval Warm Period in the Daihai Area(Journal of Lake Sciences, Vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 209-216, Sep 2002)- Z. Jin, J. Shen, S. Wang, E. Zhang
Torneträsk tree-ring width and density ad 500–2004: a test of climatic sensitivity and a new 1500-year reconstruction of north Fennoscandian summers(Climate Dynamics, January, 2008)- Håkan Grudd
Tree-ring and glacial evidence for the medieval warm epoch and the little ice age in southern South America(Climatic Change, Volume 26, Numbers 2-3, March, 1994)- Ricardo Villalba
Was the Medieval Warm Period Global?(Science, Vol. 291. no. 5508, pp. 1497 - 1499, 23 February 2001)- Wallace S. Broecker

The Little Ice Age and the subsequent warming were global in extent. Several Holocene fluctuations in snowline, comparable in magnitude to that of the post-Little Ice Age warming, occurred in the Swiss Alps. Borehole records both in polar ice and in wells from all continents suggest the existence of a Medieval Warm Period. Finally, two multidecade-duration droughts plagued the western United States during the latter part of the Medieval Warm Period. I consider this evidence sufficiently convincing to merit an intensification of studies aimed at elucidating Holocene climate fluctuations, upon which the warming due to greenhouse gases is superimposed.

Polar Bears:
Polar bears of western Hudson Bay and climate change: Are warming spring air temperatures the “ultimate” survival control factor?(Ecological Complexity, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 73-84, September 2007)- M.G. Dyck, W. Soon, R.K. Baydack, D.R. Legates, S. Baliunas, T.F. Ball, L.O. Hancock

Sea Level:
Estimating future sea level changes from past records(Global and Planetary Change, Volume 40, Issues 1-2, Pages 49-54, January 2004)- Nils-Axel Mörner
New perspectives for the future of the Maldives(Global and Planetary Change, v. 40, iss. 1-2, p. 177-182. 2004)- Nils-Axel Momer, Michael Tooley, Goran Possnert
Snowfall-Driven Growth in East Antarctic Ice Sheet Mitigates Recent Sea-Level Rise(Science, Vol. 308. no. 5730, pp. 1898 - 1901, 24 June 2005)- Curt H. Davis, Yonghong Li, Joseph R. McConnell, Markus M. Frey, Edward Hanna)

A mechanism for sun-climate connection(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, 2005)- Sultan Hameed, Jae N. Lee
A Millennium Scale Sunspot Reconstruction: Evidence For an Unusually Active Sun Since the 1940's(Physical Review Letters 91, 2003)- Ilya G. Usoskin, Sami K. Solanki, Manfred Schüssler, Kalevi Mursula, Katja Alanko
Celestial Climate Driver: A Perspective from Four Billion Years of the Carbon Cycle(Geoscience Canada, Volume 32, Number 1, March 2005)- Ján Veizer
Celestial driver of Phanerozoic climate?(GSA Volume 13, Issue 7, July 2003)- Nir J. Shaviv, Ján Veizer
Climate Change: The Sun's Role(arXiv:0706.3621, 23 Jun 2007)- Gerald E. Marsh
Comparison of proxy records of climate change and solar forcing(Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 23, Issue 4, p. 359-362, 02/1996)- Crowley, Thomas J., Kim, Kwang-Yul
Evidence of Solar Variation in Tree-Ring-Based Climate Reconstructions(Solar Physics, Volume 205, Number 2, Pages 403-417, February 2002)- M.G. Ogurtsov , G.E. Kocharov, M. Lindholm, J. Meriläinen, M. Eronen, Yu.A. Nagovitsyn
Geophysical, archaeological, and historical evidence support a solar-output model for climate change(PNAS, Vol. 97, No. 23, 12433-12438, November 7, 2000)- Charles A. Perry, Kenneth J. Hsu
Has solar variability caused climate change that affected human culture?(Advances in Space Research, Volume 40, Issue 7, Pages 1173-1180, 2007)- Joan Feynmana
Imprint of Galactic dynamics on Earth's climate(Astronomische Nachrichten, Volume 327, Issue 9 , Pages 866 - 870, 10 Oct 2006)- H. Svensmark)
Is solar variability reflected in the Nile River?(Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111, D21114, 2006)- Alexander Ruzmaikin, Joan Feynman, Yuk L. Yung
Length of the Solar Cycle: An Indicator of Solar Activity Closely Associated with Climate(Science, Vol. 254. no. 5032, pp. 698 - 700, November 1991)- E. Friis-Christensen, K. Lassen
Linkages between solar activity, climate predictability and water resource development(Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering, Vol 49 No 2, Pages 32–44, June 2007)- W J R Alexander, F Bailey, D B Bredenkamp, A van der Merwe, N Willemse
Long-Period Cycles of the Sun's Activity Recorded in Direct Solar Data and Proxies(Solar Physics, Volume 211, Numbers 1-2, December, 2002)- M.G. Ogurtsov, Yu.A. Nagovitsyn, G.E. Kocharov, H. Jungner
Orbital Controls on the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the Tropical Climate(Paleoceanogrpahy Vol. 14, No. 4, Pages 441–456, 1999)- A. C. Clement, R. Seager, M. A. Cane
Palaeoenvironmental evidence for solar forcing of Holocene climate: linkages to solar science(Progress in Physical Geography, Vol. 23, No. 2, 181-204, 1999)- Frank M. Chambers, Michael I. Ogle, Jeffrey J. Blackford
Persistent Solar Influence on North Atlantic Climate During the Holocene(Science, Vol. 294. no. 5549, pp. 2130 - 2136, 7 December 2001)- Gerard Bond, Bernd Kromer, Juerg Beer, Raimund Muscheler, Michael N. Evans, William Showers, Sharon Hoffmann, Rusty Lotti-Bond, Irka Hajdas, Georges Bonani
Phenomenological solar contribution to the 1900–2000 global surface warming(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, L05708, 2006)- N. Scafetta, B. J. West
Phenomenological solar signature in 400 years of reconstructed Northern Hemisphere temperature record(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, L17718, 2006)- N. Scafetta, B. J. West
Possible solar forcing of century-scale drought frequency in the northern Great Plains(Geology, Vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 263-266, Mar 1999)-Zicheng Yu, Emi Ito
Reply to Lockwood and Fröhlich – The persistent role of the Sun in climate forcing(Danish National Space Center Scientific Report, 3/2007)- H. Svensmark, E.Friis-Christensen
Regional tropospheric responses to long-term solar activity variations(Advances in Space Research, Volume 40, Issue 7, Pages 1167-1172, 2007)- O.M. Raspopov, V.A. Dergachev, A.V. Kuzmin, O.V. Kozyreva, M.G. Ogurtsov, T. Kolström and E. Lopatin
Rhodes Fairbridge and the idea that the solar system regulates the Earth’s climate(Journal of Coastal Research, SI 50, pp. 955-968, 2007)- Richard Mackey
Solar activity variations and global temperature(Energy (Oxford), Vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1273-1284, 1993)- Friis-Christensen, Eigil
Solar and climate signal records in tree ring width from Chile (AD 1587–1994)(Planetary and Space Science, Volume 55, Issues 1-2, Pages 158-164, January 2007)- Nivaor Rodolfo Rigozoa, Daniel Jean Roger Nordemann, Heitor Evangelista da Silva, Mariza Pereira de Souza Echer, Ezequiel Echer
Solar correlates of Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude climate variability(International Journal of Climatology, Volume 22, Issue 8 , Pages 901 - 915, 27 May 2002)- Ronald E. Thresher
Solar Cycle Variability, Ozone, and Climate(Science, Vol. 284. no. 5412, pp. 305 - 308, 9 April 1999)- Drew Shindell, David Rind, Nambeth Balachandran, Judith Lean, Patrick Lonergan
Solar Forcing of Drought Frequency in the Maya Lowlands(Science, Vol. 292. no. 5520, pp. 1367 - 1370, 18 May 2001)- David A. Hodell, Mark Brenner, Jason H. Curtis, Thomas Guilderson
Solar total irradiance variation and the global sea surface temperature record(Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 96, NO. D2, Pages 2835–2844, 1991)- George C. Reid
Solar variability and climate change: Geomagnetic aa index and global surface temperature(Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 25, Issue 7, p. 1035-1038, 1998)- E.W. Cliver, V. Boriakoff, J. Feynman
Solar variability and ring widths in fossil trees(Il Nuovo Cimento C, Volume 19, Number 4, July 1996)- S. Cecchini, M. Galli, T. Nanni, L. Ruggiero
Solar Variability Over the Past Several Millennia(Space Science Reviews, Volume 125, Issue 1-4, pp. 67-79, Friday, December 22, 2006)- J. Beer, M. Vonmoos, R. Muscheler
Suggestive correlations between the brightness of Neptune, solar variability, and Earth's temperature (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, L08203, 2007)- H. B. Hammel, G. W. Lockwood
Surface warming by the solar cycle as revealed by the composite mean difference projection(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, L14703, 2007)- Charles D. Camp, Ka Kit Tung
The link between the solar dynamo and climate - The evidence from a long mean air temperature series from Northern Ireland(Irish Astronomical Journal, vol. 21, no. 3-4, p. 251-254, 09/1994)- C.J. Butler, D.J. Johnston
The Sun–Earth Connection in Time Scales from Years to Decades and Centuries(Space Science Reviews, v. 95, Issue 1/2, p. 625-637, 2001)- T.I. Pulkkinen, H. Nevanlinna, P.J. Pulkkinen, M. Lockwood
Variable solar irradiance as a plausible agent for multidecadal variations in the Arctic-wide surface air temperature record of the past 130 years(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, L16712, 2005)- Willie W.-H. Soon
Variability of the solar cycle length during the past five centuries and the apparent association with terrestrial climate(Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, Volume 57, Issue 8, Pages 835-845, July 1995)- K. Lassen, E. Friis-Christensen
Variations in Radiocarbon Concentration and Sunspot Activity(Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 66, p.273, 01/1961)- Stuiver, M.
Variations in the Earth's Orbit: Pacemaker of the Ice Ages(Science, Vol. 194. no. 4270, pp. 1121 - 1132, 10 December 1976)- J. D. Hays, John Imbrie, N. J. Shackleton
Variations of solar coronal hole area and terrestrial lower tropospheric air temperature from 1979 to mid-1998: astronomical forcings of change in earth's climate?(New Astronomy, Volume 4, Issue 8, Pages 563-579, January 2000)- W. Soon, S. Baliunas, E. S. Posmentier, P. Okeke
What do we really know about the Sun-climate connection?(Advances in Space Research, Volume 20, Issue 4-5, p. 913-921, 1997)- Eigil Friis-Christensen, Henrik Svensmark
Will We Face Global Warming in the Nearest Future?(Geomagnetism i Aeronomia, Vol. 43, pp. 124-127, 2003)- V. S. Bashkirtsev, G. P. MashnichSolar -

Cosmic Rays:
Solar variability influences on weather and climate: Possible connections through cosmic ray fluxes and storm intensification(Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 94, No. D12, p. 14783 - 14792, October 1989)- Brian A, Tinsley, Geoffrey M. Brown, Philip H. Scherrer
Hale-cycle effects in cosmic-ray intensity during the last four cycles(Astrophysics and Space Science, Volume 246, Number 1, March 1996)- H. Mavromichalaki, A. Belehaki, X. Rafios, I. Tsagouri
Variation of Cosmic Ray Flux and Global Cloud Coverage - a Missing Link in Solar-Climate Relationships(Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Vol. 59, No. 11, pp. 1225-1232, July 1997)- Henrik Svensmark, Eigil Friis-Christensen
Influence of Cosmic Rays on Earth's Climate(Physical Review Letters, Volume 81, Issue 22, pp. 5027-5030, November 30, 1998)- Henrik Svensmark-
Reply to comments on "Variation of cosmic ray flux and global cloud coverage - a missing link in solar-climate relationships"(Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Volume 62, Issue 1, p. 79-80, January 2000)- Henrik Svensmark, Eigil Friis-Christensen
Cosmic rays and Earth's climate(Space Science Reviews, v. 93, Issue 1/2, p. 175-185, July 2000)- Henrik Svensmark
Cosmic rays and climate - The influence of cosmic rays on terrestrial clouds and global warming(Astronomy & Geophysics, Volume 41 Issue 4 Page 4.18-4.22, August 2000)- E Pallé Bagó, C J Butler
Cosmic Rays, Clouds, and Climate(Space Science Reviews, v. 94, Issue 1/2, p. 215-230, November 2000)- Nigel Marsh, Henrik Svensmark
Low cloud properties influenced by cosmic rays(Physical Review Letters, Vol. 85, Issue 23, pp. 5004-5007, December 2000)- Nigel D Marsh, Henrik Svensmark
On the relationship of cosmic ray flux and precipitation(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 28, No. 8, pp. 1527–1530, 2001)- Dominic R. Kniveton and Martin C. Todd
Altitude variations of cosmic ray induced production of aerosols: Implications for global cloudiness and climate
(Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 107, No. A7, pp. SIA 8-1, July 2002)- Fangqun Yu
The Spiral Structure of the Milky Way, Cosmic Rays, and Ice Age Epochs on Earth(New Astronomy, Volume 8, Issue 1, p. 39-77, January 2003)- Nir J. Shaviv
Galactic cosmic ray and El Niño–Southern Oscillation trends in International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 low-cloud properties(Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 108, No. D6, pp. AAC 6-1, March 2003)- Nigel Marsh, Henrik Svensmark
The effects of galactic cosmic rays, modulated by solar terrestrial magnetic fields, on the climate(Russian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 5, October 2004)- V. A. Dergachev, P. B. Dmitriev, O. M. Raspopov, B. Van Geel
Formation of large NAT particles and denitrification in polar stratosphere: possible role of cosmic rays and effect of solar activity(Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Volume 4, Issue 9/10, pp. 2273-2283, November 2004)- F. Yu
Long-term variations of the surface pressure in the North Atlantic and possible association with solar activity and galactic cosmic rays(Advances in Space Research, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 484-490, 2005)- S.V. Veretenenko, , V.A. Dergachev, P.B. Dmitriyev
Galactic Cosmic Rays and Insolation are the Main Drivers of Global Climate of the Earth(arXiv:hep-ph/0506208, June 2005)- V.D. Rusov, I.V. Radin, A.V. Glushkov, V.N. Vaschenko, V.N.Pavlovich, T.N. Zelentsova, O.T. Mihalys, V.A.Tarasov, A. Kolos
On climate response to changes in the cosmic ray flux and radiative budget(Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 110, Issue A8, August 2005)- Nir J. Shaviv
Cosmic rays and the biosphere over 4 billion years(Astronomische Nachrichten, Vol. 327, Issue 9, Page 871, 2006)- Henrik Svensmark
The Antarctic climate anomaly and galactic cosmic rays(physics/0612145v1, December 2006)- Henrik Svensmark
Interstellar-Terrestrial Relations: Variable Cosmic Environments, The Dynamic Heliosphere, and Their Imprints on Terrestrial Archives and Climate(Space Science Reviews, Volume 127, Numbers 1-4, December 2006)- K. Scherer, H. Fichtner, T. Borrmann, J. Beer, L. Desorgher, E. Flükiger, H. Fahr, S. Ferreira, U. Langner, M. Potgieter, B. Heber, J. Masarik, N. Shaviv, J. Veizer
Empirical evidence for a nonlinear effect of galactic cosmic rays on clouds(Royal Society of London Proceedings Series A, Vol. 462, Issue 2068, p.1221-1233, April 2006)- R. Giles Harrison, David B. Stephenson
Cosmoclimatology: a new theory emerges(Astronomy & Geophysics, Volume 48 Issue 1, Page 1.18-1.24, February 2007)- Henrik Svensmark
Evidence for a physical linkage between galactic cosmic rays and regional climate time series(Journal Advances in Space Research, February 2007)- Charles A. Perrya
200-year variations in cosmic rays modulated by solar activity and their climatic response(Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics, Volume 71, Number 7, July 2007)- O. M. Raspopov, V. A. Dergachev
On the possible contribution of solar-cosmic factors to the global warming of XX century(Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics, Volume 71, Number 7, July 2007)- M. G. Ogurtsov
Cosmic rays and climate of the Earth: possible connection(Comptes Rendus Geosciences, December 2007)- Ilya G. Usoskina, Gennady A. Kovaltsovb
Galactic Cosmic Rays - Clouds Effect and Bifurcation Model of the Earth Global Climate. Part 1. Theory(arXiv:0803.2765, Mar 2008)-V. Rusov, A. Glushkov, V. Vaschenko, O. Mihalys, S. Kosenko, S. Mavrodiev, B. Vachev

Species Extinctions:
Dangers of crying wolf over risk of extinctions(Nature 428, 799, 22 April 2004)- Richard J. Ladle, Paul Jepson, Miguel B. Araújo & Robert J. Whittaker

A test of corrections for extraneous signals in gridded surface temperature data(Climate Research, Vol. 26: 159-173, 2004)- Ross McKitrick, Patrick J. Michaels
Analysis of trends in the variability of daily and monthly historical temperature measurements(Climate Research, Vol. 10: 27-33, 1998)- Patrick J. Michaels, Robert C. Balling Jr, Russell S. Vose, Paul C. Knappenberger
Conflicting Signals of Climatic Change in the Upper Indus Basin(Journal of Climate, Volume 19, Issue 17, p. 4276–4293, September 2006)- H. J. Fowler, D. R. Archer
Disparity of tropospheric and surface temperature trends: New evidence(Geophysical Research Letters, VOL. 31, L13207, 2004)- David H. Douglass, Benjamin D. Pearson, S. Fred Singer, Paul C. Knappenberger, Patrick J. Michaels
Differential trends in tropical sea surface and atmospheric temperatures since 1979(Geophysical Research Letters, VOL. 28, NO. 1, PAGES 183–186, 2001)- Christy, J.R., D.E. Parker, S.J. Brown, I. Macadam, M. Stendel, W.B. Norris
Documentation of uncertainties and biases associated with surface temperature measurement sites for climate change assessment.(Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88:6, 913-928, 2007)- Pielke Sr., R.A. J. Nielsen-Gammon, C. Davey, J. Angel, O. Bliss, N. Doesken, M. Cai., S. Fall, D. Niyogi, K. Gallo, R. Hale, K.G. Hubbard, X. Lin, H. Li, S. Raman
Does a Global Temperature Exist?(Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics, June 2006)- Christopher Essex, Ross McKitrick, Bjarne Andresen
Estimation and representation of long-term (>40 year) trends of Northern-Hemisphere-gridded surface temperature: A note of caution(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 31, L03209, 2004)- Willie W.-H. Soon, David R. Legates, Sallie L. Baliunas
Multi-scale analysis of global temperature changes and trend of a drop in temperature in the next 20 years(Springer Wien, Volume 95, January, 2007)- Lin Zhen-Shan, Sun Xian
Nature of observed temperature changes across the United States during the 20th century(Climate Research, Vol. 17: 45–53, 2001)- Paul C. Knappenberger, Patrick J. Michaels, Robert E. Davis
Natural signals in the MSU lower tropospheric temperature record(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 27, No. 18, pp. 2905–2908, 2000)- Patrick J. Michaels, Paul C. Knappenberger
Observed warming in cold anticyclones(Climate Research, Vol. 14: 1–6, 2000)- Patrick J. Michaels, Paul C. Knappenberger, Robert C. Balling Jr, Robert E. Davis
Revised 21st century temperature projections(Climate Research, Vol. 23: 1–9, 2002)- Patrick J. Michaels, Paul C. Knappenberger, Oliver W. Frauenfeld, Robert E. Davis
Test for harmful collinearity among predictor variables used in modeling global temperature(Climate Research, Vol. 24: 15-18, 2003)- David H. Douglass, B. David Clader, John R. Christy, Patrick J. Michaels, David A. Belsley
Tropospheric temperature change since 1979 from tropical radiosonde and satellite measurements(Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, D06102, 2007)- John R. Christy, William B. Norris, Roy W. Spencer, Justin J. Hnilo
What may we conclude about global tropospheric temperature trends?(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 31, L06211, 2004)- Christy, J.R., W.B. Norris

A new dynamical mechanism for major climate shifts(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, L13705, 2007)- Anastasios A. Tsonis, Kyle Swanson, Sergey Kravtsov
Climate change 2007: Lifting the taboo on adaptation(Nature 445, 597-598, 8 February 2007)- Roger Pielke Jr, Gwyn Prins, Steve Rayner, Daniel Sarewitz
Floods, droughts and climate change(S. Afr. J. Sci./Suid-Afr. Tydskr. Wet. Vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 403-408, Aug. 1995)- Alexander, W J R
Global warming and malaria: a call for accuracy(Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 323-324, June 2004)- P. Reiter, C. Thomas, P. Atkinson, S. Hay, S. Randolph, D. Rogers, G. Shanks, R. Snow, A. Spielman
Global Warming and the Next Ice Age(Science, Vol. 304. no. 5669, pp. 400 - 402, 16 April 2004)- Andrew J. Weaver, Claude Hillaire-Marcel
Gulf Stream safe if wind blows and Earth turns(Nature 428, 601, 8 April 2004)- Carl WunschIs
global warming climate change?(Nature 380, 478, 11 April 1996)- Adrian H. Gordon, John A. T. Bye, Roland A. D. Byron-Scott
Measurement-based estimation of the spatial gradient of aerosol radiative forcing(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, L11813, 2006)- Toshihisa Matsui, Roger A. Pielke Sr.
Misdefining ‘‘climate change’’: consequences for science and action(Environmental Science & Policy, Volume 8, Issue 6, Pages 548-561, December 2005)- Roger A. Pielke, Jr.
New Little Ice Age Instead of Global Warming?(Energy & Environment, Volume 14, Numbers 2-3, pp. 327-350, 1 May 2003)- Landscheidt T.
No upward trends in the occurrence of extreme floods in central Europe(Nature 425, 166-169, 11 September 2003)- Manfred Mudelsee, Michael Börngen, Gerd Tetzlaff, Uwe Grünewald
Some Coolness Concerning Global Warming(Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Volume 71, Issue 3, pp. 288–299, March 1990)- Richard S. Lindzen
The Ever-Changing Climate System: Adapting to Challenges(Cumberland Law Review, 36 No. 3, 493-504, 2006)- Christy, J.R.
Very high-elevation Mont Blanc glaciated areas not affected by the 20th century climate change(Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, D09120, 2007)- C. Vincent, E. Le Meur, D. Six, M. Funk, M. Hoelzle, S. Preunkert


Anonymous said...

Why should we have to "believe" in global warming. Climatology is supposed to be a science, not a faith. Or am I missing something?

Anonymous said...

Henry may be missing the fact that governments world wide, when not engaged in perpetual war, need to keep the masses alarmed and feeling the need for 'protection', also to support new tax regimes to raise more finances. The natural cycles have been with us for millennia. The 'environmental' movement and localised pollution was a key pawn latching on to the development of anthropological climate change on a global scale to suit the likes of Mr Gore and his carbon credit companies, with a science still not fully understood it is ripe for exploitation and propaganda. Big money manipulates the masses for more big money and more power every time. Thankfully, their rush to be greedy has been illuminated Jonathan Swift's comment 'Falsehoods fly, and truth comes limping along behind' [sic]. Many thanks for the blog.

Anonymous said...

Wow great list.

Please keep it online